Color: Pure topaz is colorless, but it also occurs in a broad range of colors: yellow, blue, pink, peach, gold, green, red, and brown.
Some natural yellow stones are heated to become permanently pink (pinked topaz). 

Description: Topaz is an aluminum fluorite silicate containing fluorine and has a chemical formula of Al2F2SiO4. It is one of the few gem minerals which, under suitable conditions, grow into enormous crystals. Topaz typically occurs in cavities in rhyolites and granite, in pegmatite dikes, and in high-temperature veins with cassiterite and tourmaline.
The stone is transparent with a vitreous luster. A light yellow, brown and pink variety of topaz are valued as a gemstone. The pure crystals of topaz used a great deal in jewelry.

The name's origin: The name topaz is derived from the Indian Sanskrit word tapas, meaning fire. According to another theory topaz derives its name from the Island of Topazos, in the Red Sea, where the Romans obtained a stone which they called by this name, but which was the modern chrysolite or peridot.

Birthstone: Topaz along with citrine are birthstones of Scorpius (Scorpion): Oct. 24 - Nov. 21.

Wedding anniversary: Topaz is the anniversary gemstone for the 4th and 19th year of marriage.
Imperial topaz is the anniversary gemstone for the 23rd year of marriage.

Varieties: Nothing compares to the sparkling brilliance of Blue Topaz. Orange-red Imperial Topaz is rare.

Care and treatment: As topaz has a hardness of 8, keep your gems in separate boxes to protect other jewelry from scratches. Also avoid large temperature changes. Topaz often becomes paler if kept out in the sun. Do not clean topaz in a home ultrasonic cleaner. The best way to clean topaz is warm soapy water. 

From the stone history: It is believed that the topaz of modern mineralogists was unknown to the ancients and that the stone called topazos was the mineral chrysolite or peridot.
In ancient times, a figure of a falcon carved on a Topaz was thought to help earn the goodwill of kings, princes and magnates. Topaz is Stone of Strength noted by Greeks. During medieval days it was thought to heal physical and mental disorders as well as prevent death.
In 1750 a Parisian jeweler discovered that the yellow Brazilian topaz becomes pink on exposure to a moderate heat, and this treatment has since been extensively applied, so that nearly all the pink topaz occurring in jewelry has been heat-treated. Such "burnt topaz" is often known as Brazilian ruby, as is the very rare, natural red topaz. 

Shopping guide: Topaz looks beautiful in rings, bracelets, necklaces, and pendants. Blue Topaz is available in a variety of shades, sizes and shapes. Red and intense pink are the most rare and most desirable colors for topaz. Pure topaz when brilliant-cut sometimes is mistaken for diamond.

Healing ability: Topaz stimulates an endocrine system. It assists in general tissue regeneration. Topaz is valuable in the treatment of hemorrhages. It also increases poor appetite and helps fighting blood disorders.

Mystical power: Topaz balances emotions and calms passions. It releases tension and gives feelings of joy. Topaz is known as spiritual rejuvenation gemstone.

Deposits: Important sources of topaz are in Russia, Siberia, Brazil, Sri Lanka, Africa and China, Japan, Pakistan, Myanmar, Nigeria, Australia, Mexico, and in the United States (in Maine, New Hampshire, California, Colorado, and Utah). In the United States the best topaz has been worked near Pikes Peak, Colorado, and in San Diego county, California. The largest known deposits are located in Minas Gerais in Brazil.
The finest British topaz is found in the Cairngorm Mountains in the Central Highlands, especially at Ben a Buird, Scotland. The famous topaz rock of the Schneckenstein, in Germany, yields pale yellow crystals.
Fine topaz occurs at several localities in the Urals and in Siberia, Russia, and beautiful crystals come from Takayama and Tanokamiyama in Japan.

The information for mineralogist: Topaz has a hardness of 8. 

The Most Valuable TopazThe most valuable topaz is an intense natural pink color, very large (over 15 carats), perfectly clear (free of inclusions), and perfectly cut.
small blue topaz cabochon
typical blue topaz
small blue topaz with excellent color
topaz from a Christies Auction
Low Value: The topaz in this ring is small, of poor clarity and unremarkable color. This topaz is worth less than $20. Average Value: The clarity of this topaz is better than the previous one.  It is more valuable as well because it is faceted.  However, the clarity is still not perfect and the color is weak. High Value:  This topaz has an intense, beautiful color, perfect clarity and very good interesting cut.  It is also very large (over 20 carats).  A topaz like this can cost around $1000. Highest Value:  This topaz pendant auctioned at Christies for $17,000. It is valuable mostly because of its rare pink color.  It also has perfect clarity and cut.  It weighs around 20 carats.

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